Table 3

Quartile Distribution of Pharmacy-Reported Drug Pricing Data Stratified by ZIP Code Area Variable

VariableMean ± S.D. Price ($) for 30-Day Supplya
Hydrocodone–AcetaminophenLevothyroxineMethylphenidate
Population total
 Quartile 125.99 ± 5.8817.63 ± 4.77151.76 ± 109.10
 Quartile 228.42 ± 2.0511.86 ± 3.18128.60 ± 37.35
 Quartile 328.24 ± 1.0313.05 ± 2.3695.92 ± 24.88
 Quartile 428.72 ± 2.3413.61 ± 3.35121.74 ± 43.20
Median age
 Quartile 127.94 ± 1.3513.68 ± 5.36125.64 ± 21.59
 Quartile 229.47 ± 1.5213.94 ± 1.5092.37 ± 28.24
 Quartile 328.11 ± 3.3113.84 ± 3.09118.40 ± 53.88
 Quartile 426.22 ± 4.7013.93 ± 5.07147.96 ± 83.04
Median household income
 Quartile 128.86 ± 0.7213.93 ± 5.4987.90 ± 29.05
 Quartile 228.34 ± 2.0313.89 ± 2.13108.63 ± 33.15
 Quartile 328.28 ± 1.4212.94 ± 2.12107.21 ± 27.18
 Quartile 426.36 ± 5.6914.80 ± 5.47171.11 ± 77.60
% Female residents
 Quartile 129.40 ± 1.9614.40 ± 1.1392.98 ± 31.10
 Quartile 226.69 ± 5.7414.68 ± 5.54165.99 ± 83.06
 Quartile 327.69 ± 1.2412.54 ± 2.78118.62 ± 29.66
 Quartile 428.24 ± 1.2314.08 ± 4.6597.87 ± 21.45
% White residents
 Quartile 128.73 ± 0.8013.72 ± 5.0290.71 ± 27.02
 Quartile 227.29 ± 1.2312.55 ± 2.84123.50 ± 22.40
 Quartile 329.64 ± 2.3414.82 ± 2.21106.35 ± 40.17
 Quartile 425.68 ± 4.8713.93 ± 5.07160.83 ± 82.48
% Residents with Income below federal poverty limit
 Quartile 126.90 ± 5.4714.81 ± 5.47158.23 ± 80.20
 Quartile 227.49 ± 2.5713.15 ± 2.24123.07 ± 43.19
 Quartile 328.55 ± 1.7613.56 ± 2.11105.87 ± 31.42
 Quartile 428.86 ± 0.7213.93 ± 5.4987.90 ± 29.05
% Graduated high school
 Quartile 129.77 ± 1.4515.42 ± 5.5594.46 ± 27.36
 Quartile 228.06 ± 1.0912.92 ± 2.51101.82 ± 35.72
 Quartile 327.37 ± 2.4412.89 ± 2.05115.96 ± 40.05
 Quartile 427.23 ± 5.4815.00 ± 5.39162.11 ± 78.08
% Graduated college
 Quartile 128.85 ± 0.6414.47 ± 5.0896.19 ± 31.25
 Quartile 228.58 ± 2.1413.21 ± 1.60105.98 ± 34.62
 Quartile 327.88 ± 2.9913.56 ± 3.09125.70 ± 45.83
 Quartile 426.55 ± 5.0014.10 ± 5.08148.29 ± 82.63
% Employed
 Quartile 129.06 ± 0.5214.97 ± 4.8674.19 ± 22.40
 Quartile 228.41 ± 1.6412.95 ± 2.73108.18 ± 33.99
 Quartile 326.55 ± 4.9814.17 ± 4.73165.71 ± 65.71
 Quartile 428.14 ± 2.5913.44 ± 3.24112.44 ± 37.14
% Uninsured
 Quartile 128.01 ± 5.6515.24 ± 5.35154.14 ± 86.14
 Quartile 226.79 ± 2.3015.03 ± 3.95127.94 ± 38.37
 Quartile 327.85 ± 1.0911.51 ± 2.06106.83 ± 33.83
 Quartile 429.10 ± 1.3913.62 ± 2.6895.82 ± 27.26
Local personal crime risk score
 Quartile 128.10 ± 3.3912.51 ± 4.19143.48 ± 52.77
 Quartile 228.96 ± 1.9413.91 ± 1.48106.15 ± 27.58
 Quartile 327.95 ± 1.4114.16 ± 4.50116.15 ± 26.64
 Quartile 426.48 ± 5.3114.95 ± 4.82117.15 ± 98.01
Local property crime risk score
 Quartile 128.10 ± 3.3912.51 ± 4.19143.48 ± 52.77
 Quartile 228.18 ± 1.9915.05 ± 4.08114.16 ± 35.57
 Quartile 328.73 ± 4.3514.19 ± 4.67122.71 ± 77.68
 Quartile 429.12 ± 1.5113.54 ± 1.4497.95 ± 27.98
Local total crime risk score
 Quartile 128.10 ± 3.3912.51 ± 4.19143.48 ± 52.77
 Quartile 228.35 ± 1.7915.15 ± 4.00100.26 ± 26.23
 Quartile 328.45 ± 1.7312.67 ± 2.90120.54 ± 24.12
 Quartile 426.52 ± 5.3315.55 ± 4.11114.90 ± 98.40
Pharmacy density
 Quartile 127.66 ± 5.4616.37 ± 3.70119.16 ± 94.31
 Quartile 228.82 ± 1.3610.27 ± 2.77115.62 ± 46.10
 Quartile 327.84 ± 1.5814.79 ± 4.43119.24 ± 25.55
 Quartile 427.42 ± 2.8413.97 ± 1.04129.26 ± 34.47
  • a Prices are out-of-pocket (i.e., cash) prices, as reported by surveyed pharmacies; for hydrocodone–acetaminophen and levothyroxine pricing, n = 89; for methylphenidate pricing, n = 88.